Referencing Information

Site: QMplus - The Online Learning Environment of Queen Mary University of London
Course: Find It! Use It! Reference It! QMUL Information Literacy Skills
Book: Referencing Information
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Sunday, 20 September 2020, 12:47 PM

Description

How to reference information.

1. Why do I have to reference my academic work?

It is important that you get into the habit of referencing your work. Correctly referencing your work means that you:

  • acknowledge the contribution that other people have made to your work
  • produce work that is credible and accountable
  • help the reader to locate the sources you have used to write your coursework: remember, someone else - not least your tutor - may wish to consult a particular book chapter or article that you have used

The essential point of referencing then, is to ensure that your work is demonstrably honest and reliable, and to make the sources and resources you have used as traceable as possible.

Find out more about referencing in the following chapters:

Chapter 2 gives you an overview of some of the most commonly used referencing styles.

Chapter 3 tells you about different reference management tools.


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2. How do I correctly reference my work?

In this section you will find information to help you correctly use the main referencing styles in use at Queen Mary; these are:

  • Harvard
  • Vancouver
  • MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association)
  • APA (American Pyschological Association)
  • OSCOLA (for Law students)

However, make sure that you check with your School or Department which is the required style.

We have also included a section on constructing bibliographies, and there is a fun quiz at the end to test your knowledge.

2.1. Referencing Overview

There are certain conventions that should be followed when referencing academic work. You may wish to ask your lecturers if your department has a preferred style, but the key thing to remember is that all referencing styles have two parts:

1. The in-text citation

2. The reference list

The in-text citation is a 'marker' placed in the text at an appropriate point to indicate a reference. The marker can be a number - for example, 1 or [1] - when using a numerically based referencing system, or the author's surname and the year of publication when using an author-date system - (Gain, 2015).

The reference list is the section of your essay where you list all of your sources in full, either in number order where the number matches the order in which the source appears in the text, or in alphabetical order using the author's surname.

Make sure that you choose an appropriate referencing style and stick with it throughout your essay - don't mix systems as this will confuse your reader.

The following are the main referencing styles in use at Queen Mary. Read a little more, and then try some of the activities on these pages so that you know you are getting it right.


Start using Cite Them Right Online (CTRO) to learn more about this important subject. CTRO is an excellent interactive guide to referencing. You can search for sources, view correct examples and construct references which can be exported to your essays and assignments. Access Cite Them Right Online (CTRO)


an image of the book version of Cite Them Right by Richard Pears

The physical book version of Cite Them Right can also be found in the Library's Study Skills Collection under the classmark PN171.F56 PEA. You can find more books on referencing via Library Search


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2.2. The Harvard Referencing Style

The Harvard referencing style is also known as the Author & Date system.

Whenever you quote another person's words or specifically refer to their work you must cite the author's surname and the year of publication. For example:

Macromolecules are the central molecules of all living organisms (Liljas, 2009)...

This would be inserted into your reference list/bibliography as:

Liljas, A. (2009). Textbook of structural biology. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.

The following are some examples of how different items are referenced:

Book

Surname, initial(s). (Publication year in brackets). Title of book - italicised or underlined, first word and proper nouns only capitalised. Series title and volume if applicable. Edition - if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.

Liljas, A. (2009). Textbook of structural biology. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.

Chapter from a multi-author book

Surname, initial(s) of the author of the chapter. (Publication year in brackets). Title of chapter in single quotation marks. in: surname, initial(s) of editor(s) of book followed by (ed.) or (eds.). Book title - italicised, first word and proper nouns only capitalised. Series title and volume if applicable. Edition - if not the first. Place of publication: publisher. Page reference.

Artman, S. (2011). 'Biological Information'. In: Sakar, S. and Plutynski, A. (eds.). A companion to the philosophy of biology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. pp.83-95.

 

Journal article

Surname(s), initial(s) of the author(s) of the article. (Publication year in brackets). Title of article. Title of journal - italicised or underlined. Volume number (part number/month in brackets), p. or pp. followed by the page number(s) of the article.

Myers, S., Malladi, C., Hyland, R., Bautista, T., Boadle, R., Robinson, P. and Nicholson, G. (2014). Mutations in the SPTLC1 Protein Cause Mitochondrial Structural Abnormalities and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Lymphoblasts. DNA and Cell Biology. 33(7), pp. 399-407.

Website

Surname, initial(s) of author of website, or website name if no author is available. (Year - in brackets). Title of website - italicised or underlined. Any numbers if necessary or available if website is part of a series. [online, in square brackets] Available from: URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

BBC News, (2014). Dinosaurs' extinction 'bad luck'. [online] Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-28488044 [Accessed 29 July 2014].

Lecture on QMplus

Surname, initial(s) of lecturer. Year of publication (in round brackets). Title of lecture in single quotation marks. Module code: module title (italicised). Available at: URL of VLE. (Accessed: day/month/year).

Pennington, D. (2013). 'How do we eliminate pathogens that live inside cells?'. A100: Immunology. Available at: http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/mod/book/view.php?id=214845&chapterid=9445. (Accessed: 21/10/2014).

Live lecture

Surname, initial(s) of lecturer. Year (in round brackets). Title of lecture (italicised). [Lecture to ... and campus]. Place, day and month.

Michael, G. (2014) 'Histology - muscle and nerve'[Lecture to MBBS year 1, QMUL - SMD Barts]. London, 22 September.


Learn more about the Harvard referencing style using Cite Them Right Online:

You can find more books on referencing via Library Search

2.3. The Vancouver Referencing Style

Vancouver is known as a numeric referencing style, and is used in biomedical, health and some science publications.

Whenever you refer to another person’s work, you need to insert a footnote number in either superscript or in brackets in your text. For example:

Dinosaurs had to be cold blooded or they would overheat given their large body size.1

Dinosaurs had to be cold blooded or they would overheat given their large body size. (1)

This would be inserted into your reference list/bibliography as:

Spotila JR. Sea turtles: a complete guide to their biology, behaviour and conservation. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2004.

Authors should be cited by surname, then initials with no comma between surname and initials.

Only the first word and any proper nouns are capitalised and the title is not underlined.

The reference list/bibliography should be produced in the order you cite the works in your text, not in alphabetical order.

 

The following are some examples of how different items are referenced:

Book

Surname and initial(s) of author. Title. Place of publication: publisher; year of publication.

Spotila JR. Sea turtles: a complete guide to their biology, behaviour and conservationMaryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 2004.

Chapter from a multi-author book

Surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s) of the chapter. Title of chapter in single quotation marks. In name of editor(s) of book, Title of book. Place of publication: publisher; year of publication, page number(s) (preceded by p.).

Chandraharan E. 'History taking and examination in obstetrics'. In Symonds I. and Arulkumaran S., Essential Obstetrics Gynaecology. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2013, p. 65-77.

Journal article

Surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s) of the article. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication as year month day; volume (issue): page numbers (not preceded by p.).

Perry C, Barron A. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013 Nov. 4; 110 (47): 19155-19159.

Website

 Author/editor. Title [Internet]. Year [date cited]. Available from: URL

Newscientist.com. Eye implant turns smartphone into a glaucoma monitor - health - 24 August 2014 - New Scientist [Internet]. 2014 [27 August]. Available from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26095-eye-implant-turns-smartphone-into-a-glaucoma-monitor.html#.U_2gIBAkyuM

Live lecture

Note that the Vancouver style of referencing does not have explicit guidelines for citing an unpublished lecture; the following is therefore a suggested model.

Name of lecturer/presenter. Title of lecture. [Lecture]. Name of institution. Date.

Beeson M. The ramblings of Iain Sinclair: The persistence of the London antiquarian tradition. [Lecture]. Queen Mary University of London. 10 October 2015.


Learn more about the Vancouver referencing style by using Cite Them Right Online:


You can find more books on referencing via Library Search.

Cite them Right 


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2.4. The MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) Referencing Style

MHRA is a numeric referencing style developed and published by the Modern Humanities Research Association.

Whenever you use another person’s words in your work or specifically refer to their ideas, you need to insert a footnote number (using superscript) in your text. For example:

Giroux sums up how Disney transforms every child into a lifetime consumer of Disney products and ideas.1

When you refer to a publication for the first time, use full bibliographic details in the footnote. In the example used here, it would be done like this:

*Henry Giroux, The Mouse that Roared: Disney and the end of Innocence (Maryland: Rowland & Littlefield Publishers, 1999), p. 25.

*Note that the first name appears before the surname here!

When you refer to the same book later on, you can provide the information in a shortened form:

*Giroux, Mouse that Roared, p. 25.

*Just the surname here!

You can download the latest edition of the Style Guide (3) free of charge from the MHRA website which includes a Quick Guide to the main features of the MHRA style.

The following are some examples of how different items are referenced using the MHRA system:

Book

First name and surname of author, title of book (italicised, all important words capitalised) (place of publication: publisher, year of publication), page numbers (p. for one page, pp. for more than one page).

Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference: Lexicography, Learning and Language from the Clay Tablet to the Computer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 59.

Chapter from a book

First name and surname of author(s), title of chapter in single quotation marks, in title of book (italicised, all important words capitalised), ed. by first name and surname of authors(s) (place of publication: publisher, year of publication), page numbers (p. for one page, pp. for more than one page).

Martin Elsky, ‘Words, Things, and Names: Jonson’s Poetry and Philosophical Grammar’, in Classic and Cavalier: Essays on Jonson and the Sons of Ben, ed. by Claude J. Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982), pp. 31–55 (p. 41).

Journal article

First name and surname of author, title of article in single quotation marks, title of journal (italicised), volume number (date of publication), page numbers of article (with specific page reference).

Richard Hillyer, ‘In More than Name Only: Jonson’s “To Sir Horace Vere”’, Modern Language Review, 85 (1990), 1–11 (p. 8).

Website

Publication/name of author, title of article in single quotation marks,  year published or last updated <URL> [date accessed].

The Economist , 'The Digital Degree', 2014 <http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21605899-staid-higher-education-business-about-experience-welcome-earthquake-digital>; [accessed 28 July 2014].

 

Lecture on QMplus

The MHRA Style Guide does not contain an example of how to reference a lecture. The following example is based on the MHRA guidelines.

First name and surname of lecturer, title of lecture in single quotation marks, module code: module title (italicised). Year. Available at: URL of VLE [date accessed].

Stephen Henneberg, ‘Marketing Activities’, BUSM094: Introduction to Marketing Theory. 2014. Available at: http://qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=53 [Accessed 22 October 2014].

Live lecture

First name and surname of lecturer, title of lecture in single quotation marks, module code: module title (italicised). Location. Date of lecture.

Dr Phillipa Williams, 'Understanding 'Research' and Health Inequalities', GEG5013: Geographical Research in Practice. Queen Mary University of London. September 2014.


Learn more about the MHRA referencing style using Cite Them Right Online:


You can find more books on referencing via Library Search.

Cite them Right 


  


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2.5. The APA Referencing Style

The APA style, created by the American Psychological Association, is used by writers around the world for writing and publishing in the Social and Behavioural Sciences. APA is an author-date style similar to the Harvard style, but with its own characteristics in terms of formatting, spelling, construction of tables and graphs. It can also contain footnotes which allows authors to include additional information.

APA is a style used in academia  across various disciplines as well as in many scientific journals, and therefore it might appeal not only to students and researchers in the Psychological-Medical field, but also to students of Social Sciences/Politics.

Access tutorial on  Basics of APA Style  :

 


Learn more about the APA referencing style by using Cite Them Right Online:


 


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2.6. OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities)

The OSCOLA style is a set of rules specially designed to reference legal sources such as:

  • UK statutes (Acts of Parliament)
  • Statutory Instruments (SIs)
  • Command Papers
  • Law reports (cases)
  • Legislation from the UK's devolved Assemblies
  • Law Commission reports and consultation papers
  • EU legislation
  • EU directives, decisions and regulations

OSCOLA uses numeric references in the text linked to full citations in footnotes, and is characterised by light punctuation and heavy use of abbreviations (the Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations can help in respect to the latter).

Getting to grips with OSCOLA is essential for both Law students and legal professionals in the UK. The Oxford University Faculty of Law website contains all the help you need to master this complex referencing style.

Check out OSCOLA Quick Reference Guide

Or consult the free, comprehensive guide to the OSCOLA style 4th edition 2012 for referencing UK legal sources. 

For guidance on how to cite international legal sources please see Oscola 2006 Citing International Law Section.




Cite Them Right Online may also be helpful:


 


Need help or advice with anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

2.7. The perfect bibliography

 

You'll know by now that a good quality bibliography is an essential part of academic writing, and you'll remember that a bibliography is a list of all of the books, articles and other sources that you have used during the course of research. So let's see if we can help you put together the perfect bibliography.

We have some sample bibliographies here; they include the same books and articles, but they are structured according to the different requirements of the Harvard, MHRA and Vancouver systems. Take a look and you'll soon spot the differences.

 Click on the logos to open sample bibliographies:

HARVARD

suitable for 

Science and Engineering

MHRA

suitable for 

Humanities and Social Sciences

VANCOUVER

suitable for

Science and Engineering












Refer to Cite Them Right Online for more guidance with bibliographies:




Need help or advice about anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team  

2.8. It's Quiz Time!

It is important that you construct your bibliographies correctly; have a look at our scary bibliography and then take the quiz to make sure that you've understood everything we've been talking about.


You might think that constructing the perfect bibliography would be difficult, and you'd be right if you had to to do the job manually. But you don't.

The next section of the module introduces you to free software that will automatically do the job for you!


Need help or advice about anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

3. How to manage references

As you progress in your studies you will almost certainly find that you build up a considerable stock of academic information - references to articles that you have consulted and found particularly useful, PDFs, book chapters that you need to read at some point and so on; you may even wish to keep a note of things that are not relevant, simply so that you know you don't need to check these sources again.

Keeping this volume of information in some sort of order can be a challenge. In this section, therefore, we introduce and explain reference management software.

3.1. Introduction to Referencing Management Software

Don't fret if you you start to feel overwhelmed by your growing library of references; the days of paper mountains are thankfully long gone.

Now you can store and manage your references effectively by using specially designed reference management software.

There are a number of these tools which are freely available; among the most popular are the following:

 

 

Each of these packages has various advantages; you can access them and set up accounts from the following pages - experiment and find which one suits your particular requirements.


Need help or advice about anything on this page?  Contact the T&LS Team 

3.2. EndNote Online

Endnote icon

An enhanced version of EndNote Online is freely available to all Queen Mary users. Once you have an online account, you can use it anywhere in the world with WiFi. 

Use the Library's Guide on Endnote Online to sign up and watch useful bite size videos produced by our Faculty Liaison Librarian on how to use the online referencing software.  


Need help or advice about EndNote?  Contact the T&LS Team  They can offer support and guidance for getting the best from EndNote.

3.3. Mendeley

an image of the Mendeley Logo

Mendeley is another freely available reference manager; it also functions as an academic social networking site which offers you the chance to collaborate online with other researchers and find out all about the latest research in your field.

See Guide to Mendeley

Or go to the Mendeley website to create your account and find more information on how to use Mendeley. 


Need help or advice about Mendeley?  Contact the T&LS Team 

3.4. Zotero

an image of the Zotero Logo

Zotero is a powerful research tool that is easy to use. It helps you gather, organise and analyse your source materials, and then share the results of your research. 

With Zotero you can collect PDFs, images, audio and video files, screenshots of webpages and so on.

See Guide to Zotero.

Or go to Zotero's website to create your account and find out for more information on how to use Mendeley.